中国的魅力之一来源于其巨大的差异性。这一点不光体现在风俗和人性上,也明显的体现在价值上。11万,可以买一把椅子,也可以修一座小学。

这不仅仅是一个改建项目,更是一份珍重的礼物。这份礼物不光对这个村子有效,也对你我有效。

可惜国家后来不允许办村小学,导致这个小学现在的荒芜。但是这个小学可以有更多的用处,比如村幼儿园,或者图书馆。你我的关注和爱心,可以改变这个世界。

 

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
The house I wanted to build was a house purely in my imagination

Thus I had this very first experience of fighting, through my own way, against the

village government, and against the central primary school of the town.

We went about, collecting materials deserted at the post-earthquake reconstruction sites.

We lived under harsh conditions but maintained our work.

We had no backups. We didn’t belong to any organization.

Only the volunteers and the villagers supported us.

Finally, we made it.

我想建造一个房子,纯粹在想象中的房子

所以便有了这第一次

用自己的方法

跟村政府斗争

跟乡中心小学做斗争

我们到处捡人家重建后丢弃的材料

在极端环境下生存并建造

没有后台,没有组织

只有志愿者们,老乡们 还在支持我们

最后 终于我们还是把它建造起来

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 1 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
How We started

缘起

After the 5.12 Si Chuan earthquake, I worked on a reconstruction programme with architect Hsieh Ying-chun from Taiwan. I would travel between two villages at that time: Liping and Shazhou. There is a river in the middle of these two villages, and my friend Guilin was working there across the river opposite me. At night I rowed a boat to go to his place. At day time I came back by motorcycle. The place where we lived had no proper bed. Wind would break in and dance in the corner. But I thought it was indeed a paradise for us. It was in a mid-night that our boat nearly capsized when we were crossing the river.

Guilin asked me why we were here. After a long time of silence, we decided to build this primary school. He is a programmer. I am an architect. We started to write project proposals and negotiated with the local government and NGOs. We tried to raise money from everywhere possible, although we had failed all along…

地震后,帮谢英俊做灾后重建。我一直在青川的里坪村与沙洲村之间来回,中间有条河,对面就是我的好朋友,曹贵林。夜里我会划船过去,白天摩托回来,我们住的地方没有床,到处漏风,但是这儿确是我们的一块净土。有天半夜,我们在湖上差点翻船,他问我,我们做这些到底为了什么,在沉默之后于是我们决定盖这个小学。他是个程序员,我是个建筑师。我们开始写项目书,开始公关政府,NGO,到处筹钱。尽管我们一直都在失败…

The original design had included a school, a health centre, the village committee office and a play ground. The initial vision we had was: in the remote mountain area, there are teachers reading books aloud to their students, the kind-hearted villagers, the bright sunshine, the quiet gardens, and the beautiful rice paddies. People come and go without disturbing each other; rather, they take care of each other.

When the sunshine comes through the window, the twinkling light casts spotted shadows on the wall and floor.However, the head of the village failed to reach an agreement with the secretary of the village’s communist party committee. We only got the right to rebuild the primary school.With the help of a friend who was working on a project in Shazhou, we used the money the World Bank had given him as start-up funding. We recruited volunteers and got ready to build the school by ourselves.

最初的设计包含了学校,卫生院,村委,操场,这是一个最初的愿景,在偏远的大山中,有教师的读书声,有老乡的热情,有通透的阳光,有幽静的小院。有美丽的稻田。人来人往,互不打扰,又能平安照顾。当阳光洒入的时候,斑驳的光影闪烁着光芒。但是最后由于村长与书记斗争失败,我们只争取到了小学的改造权。

在朋友的帮助下我们挪用了世界银行给朋友在沙洲做项目的2 万块钱,作了小学的启动资金,我们开始招自愿者,准备自己动手盖这个小学。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 2 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
All the ideas concerning the design focused on how to save materials and minimize costs. The needed construction work was based on what had already been there. The original building area was 68.3 m2. The structural timber was 6.15 m3. After rebuilding, the building area was enlarged to 201 m2, with 3.22 m3 added structural timbre.

When built in the traditional Chuan-dou style, the wood efficiency ratio was 1 m2 structural timbre/ 11.2 m2 building area. After rebuilding, we have improved the wood efficiency ratio to 1 m3/31.4 m2 building area.

所有的设计想法,都是为了节省材料,降低造价。在原来的建造基础上进行加建原来的建筑面积 为68.3 平方米 结构木料 为6.15 立方米加建后的建筑面积为201 平方米 结构木料 为3.22 立方米传统穿斗是木料效率为1 立方米11.2 平方米的建筑面积改造后的木料效率为1 立方米31.4 平方米的建筑面积

When it comes to seismic resistance, the most serious weakness in the traditional Chuan-dou styled architecture is the lack of lateral restraint. There is an old Chinese saying which goes: even when the wall falls, the house won’t collapse. But why the wall falls? I regard it as a question that deserves our attention. After the earthquake happened, although most of the houses did not collapse, the wood frames had tilted to the sides. This is because, generally speaking, the traditional Chuan-dou structure has no foundational connection. Displacement had taken place in many wooden houses after the earthquake.

传统穿斗式建筑最大的抗震弱点是侧向力约束不足。中国有句古话,叫墙倒屋不塌。但是为什么墙会倒呢,我想这个问题值得深究。大多数地震后,房子虽然没倒,但是木架已经向两侧倾斜,而且因为传统穿斗结构基本不做基础连接,所以地震后,很多木结构的房子都发生了位移。

Rebuilding the Liping Primary School 里坪小学改造

Building area: 201 m2

Cost: 112,000 RMB (≈1,700 USD)

Time of completion: January 2010

1 Classroom 2 Studio for volunteers 3 Rest-room for volunteers. 4 Library 5 Bedroom for teachers 6 Tea room

建筑面积:201 m2

造价:11.2 万元

完成时间:2010. 年1 月

1 教室 2 志愿者工作站 3 志愿者休息室 4 图书馆 5 老师卧室 6 茶室

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 3 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
The rebuilding was based on the original structural frame of the house. The reinforcement and space-extension was done with the purpose of improving its seismic resistant capacity and making the Chuan-dou structured house more comfortable to live in.

改造主要是通过旧有的结构形式,进行加固和扩建,寻找改善传统穿斗式木结构房屋的抗震性能和舒适度。

A proper reinforcement of the traditional structure does not cause much cost. However, some methods go against the traditional craftsmanship. The local craftsmen usually think these reinforcements are unnecessary, such as lateral bracing. Along with the aging of the connection between tenon and mortise, nodes of the Chuan-dou structure would grow weaker accordingly. In some areas, even without earthquakes, the frame of an old wooden house built in Chuan-dou style would become deformed or displaced because of its lack of lateral restraint. Reinforcement can be done in traditional ways, too. Wood is a kind of material in which the fiber grows vertically. Thus, the bracing could be designed in such a way that with the pull-push rods, the tension would be transformed into pressure.

适当加固对于传统结构来说并不会增加多少成本。但是有些做法是有驳于传统技艺的。在当地的工匠多会觉得多次一举,比如斜向支撑,随着榫卯的老化,穿斗结构的节点约束力会相应减小,加上结构的侧向力约束不足,所以一些地方的老房子,即使没有地震,结构屋架随着时间的老化发生位移和变形。加固也同样是用传统的方式来进行,因为木材是竖向纤维材料,所以在设计撑杆与拉杆时,尽量的把受拉力转化为受压力。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 4 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
When the wooden frame was finished, we used it as a makeshift stage and held a show with the villagers. Massive people gathered around by the primary school. By our surprise, the atmosphere was superb.

木架完成的时候,我们用它设计了一个舞台。与老乡们一起开了个演唱会。小学门口密密麻麻的人,气氛出乎意料的好。

That night our school was like the Bird Nest, filled with magnificent lights. The villagers and us were singing altogether with our self-made microphone under our self-made stage light.

那天晚上,我们的小学像鸟巢一样,金碧辉煌,老乡们与我们一起歌唱。 我们自制的话筒,灯光,音效。

When the spinning electrical fan drove the iodine lamp over its head, the light on our stage was shining and changing just the same as that on television.

当电风扇摇起来带动头上的碘钨灯,舞台的灯光也想电视上一样闪烁。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 5 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
The wall

墙体

There are lots of restrictions in the traditional wall-building techniques. Rammed earth wall is restricted by the quality of the earth and the season. Adobe wall is restricted by the structure. In addition, they both demand a lot of time and extensive labour, which lacks flexibility. We adjusted the method and found the advantages as follows:Unaffected by the quality of the earth;High flexibility in practice; Less labour;Superior humidity-resistance;Easy plastering.

传统的土墙工艺总是很有很多的制约:夯土墙受土质,季节的限制;土坯墙受结构的限制;而且,他们总是很费工时。不能随时随地。改进后的做法应该有如下的优势:不受土质的影响;可以随时施工;需要的劳动力更少;防潮性能优越;容易抹灰。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 6 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
The roof

屋顶

The polystyrene foam boards used as insulation layer were the leftover from the makeshift modular houses that were torn down during the post-earthquake reconstruction. We went out to pick them back every day. The water-proof layer is a thick layer of plastic sheet, which was the original roof of the primary school. When the rebuilding was under way, the children were in their summer vacation. They all joined in. The youngest was only 6 years old. With everyone’s participation, the process of rebuilding became more and more interesting.

做保温层的泡沫板是灾后重建的过程中拆临时板房时剩下的,我们每天都去捡,防水层是一层很厚的塑料布,它原来就是小学的屋顶。盖小学的时候小孩们也放假了,全民参与,年纪最小的只有6 岁。大家的参与让这个建造过程越来越有趣。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 7 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 8 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
Studio for the volunteers

自愿者工作站

The door could be a window, or a cupboard. When we define the function of the architectural parts freely, they could combine with each other freely, and transform accordingly to the needs of the users. It could fit different groups of people.

It is similar to the volunteers, who could either be a teacher, a designer, a geological explorer, or an artist.Whether you stay shortly or over a long period of time, no matter how many people there are, they can adjust themselves.It is also a space for games.When the room is without a door or with doors everywhere, the children will free their nature. They will jump to the front of you by your surprise.

门可以是窗,也可以是柜子。当我们自由定义建筑构件的功能时,他们便能自由组合,根据使用者的需要进行变换。这样可以适合不同的人群,对于自愿者来说,你可以是老师,设计师,地质勘探者,画家。不论你是短期或是长期人数多少,他都能自己调整。他同时也是一个游戏空间,房间没有看门,或者到处都是门的时候,小孩们就会释放天性,随时出现在你面前。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 9 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
In the studio, people could make their own desks. The wooden board could be set right on the shelf, and removed when not in use. Assembling and prefabricating come as the priority in designing.

在工作室里,大家可以自己自作自己的工作台。木板可以直接搁置在架子上,不用可以拿掉。拼装,预制是设计的前提

When we raised one side of the foundation, the steps gave us more possibilities. Windows and doors are not barriers anymore. Children would celebrate their nature freely. The children had already loved these steps even before they were finished. They came in through the door and walked out over the steps. They put their feet or their bags on the steps, climbing, jumping and running. They created their own games.

当基础的一端升起的时候,台阶给便了我们更多的可能。窗户与门不在是隔阂,小孩的天性变得以自由发挥。在房子还没盖好的时候,小孩们就很喜欢这个台阶。他们从门里进来,从台阶出去。放脚,阁书包,爬,跳,跑。他们发明自己的游戏

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 10 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 11 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
Foundation

基础

A traditional Chuan-dou styled house is not attached to its foundation. The house is simply placed upon the compacted ground, or supported by pillars with stones padded underneath.This results in the easy displacement during an earthquake and poor humidity resistance.If we raise one end of the foundation up a little bit then the horizontal displacement of the structure could be prevented.A column base of the foundation could prevent the vertical displacement of the frame, and make the house more humidity resistant. These methods are not very different from the traditional ones. Everyone from the village could practice these methods by themselves.When the concept of space breaks the concept of wall, the children were found rapidly adapted to the brand new environment.In this self-creating space, they made all kinds of games according to their curiosity.

传统的穿斗结构与基础都是断开的连接。就是放在夯实的地面上,或者在柱子下面垫块石头。这样的基础做法,地震的时候容易位移,防潮性能也很差。如果基础的一端能升起来一点,这样就可以防止地震的时候结构的左右位移。如果给基础做个柱础,这样就能抵抗地震中木架的上下位移,同时防潮也非常容易处理。这些基本的做法也保证了传统的施工工艺,如果村里人,都可以自己动手来做。当空间打破墙的概念时,我们发现小孩的会很快适应这个奇怪的环境,在循环的空间里,他们用自己的好奇心,做出各种各样的游戏。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 12 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
The two windows flanking the blackboard are not in parallel with it. Such a design could be realized because of the thickness of the wall.The angle between the blackboard and the windows could prevent sharp reflection from the blackboard while students were having classes.

利用土墙的厚度,将黑板的窗斜向放置,这样防止了上课时眩光。

At the same time, the light reflected from the sloping wall of the second floor would be diffused when coming through the high windows, so that the classroom could gain more light. In the classroom where there is no gable, the sunlight-plate will borrow light from the classroom next door.This guarantees a good illumination in all the classrooms.

同时,高窗上的光线通过二楼斜墙反射下来,形成漫射天光。在没有山墙的教室,则通过阳光板像隔壁教室借光,这样保证所有教室的照度。

The rest-room for volunteers

志愿者工作站卧室

We had slept on the ground before. The sleeping bag was our home. But then I thought, when the morning sun spread its beams into the rest-room, wouldn’t it be pleasant if we could actually enjoy the gentle sunshine and the fragrance of the soil from outside the window while lying on the floor with a book in hand?

以前我们都是睡在地上,只要有个睡袋,哪儿都是我们家。后来我想,在自愿者的工作站里,早晨的阳光照射进来的时候,睡在地铺上,拿起本书。享受从泥土的窗外,洒进来的柔柔的阳光,那该是多么的惬意。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 13 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
The cob wall and tilting window after plastering Tilting window is designed to prevent the sharp reflection on the blackboard inside the room.

柔软的土墙,抹灰后的土墙与斜窗,斜窗主要是为了防止室内黑板,墙上的眩光。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 14 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
Tea room

茶室

In order to gain more space for the attic on the third floor, we made an overhanging “Mei Ren Kao”(“the backrest for the beauty”, but don’t take it too literally). A tilting window was placed upon the Mei Ren Kao, which maximizes the utilization of the attic area, while at the same time people could enjoy the scenery of the whole village from there.

第三层的阁楼为了取得更大的空间,做了一个出挑的美人靠,在美人靠的上面做了一个斜向的窗,这样,阁楼上的面积使用区域最大化,同时可以看到全村的风景。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 15 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......
We left Liping on January 5th.We felt so sad that we shed tears….. The very moment when we were to leave, the villagers of Liping, unexpectedly, got together and saw us off. They followed our car and walked along as far as they could . Alas, we used to think they were trouble-makers…They gave us peanuts and millets.The head of the village and the party leaders were not there, only the villagers, with whom we had quarreled and played. Half a year passed.So many feelings of gratitude and resentment.so many brothers and sisters that had came and left.so many heroic vows and our twinkling ideal .suddenly draw a full-stop for me.Facing this end, I felt a little bit lost. The night before we left, I sat in front of the door of the newly rebuilt school. I made a big bonfire. The darkness of the night was so thick that I only saw the school shimmering through the fire. Every piece of wood, mud and bamboo is part of our burning youth.My back was cold, but my face was warm because the fire was big.The villagers gave us a lot firewood. They were all burning brightly.It came to me that when something was finished, there would be a feeling of sadness.

我们1 月5 号离开里坪村。大家伤感到掉眼泪。。。。在走的那一刻,里坪村的老乡们居然送我们离开,跟着我们的车子还走了好远。之前一直觉得刁民的他们,哎。。。给我们花生,小米。。。。没有村长,没有领导,来的都是之前闹过,吵过,玩过的村民。半年了,好多的恩恩怨怨,好多的兄弟姐妹,好多的豪言壮语,还有那微薄的理想。突然在我面前画上了一个句号,对于这个结局突然有点无所适从。。。

在离开的前一天,我坐在小学门口,点了一堆火。天黑黑的,从火光里看着若隐若现的小学里边的每一根木头,每一块泥土,每一片竹子,都埋葬着我们燃烧的青春。我的背很凉,但我前面很温暖,因为这堆火很大,老乡给了我们很多柴。燃烧着。。原来当一件事情做完的时候,我们就会悲伤。会吧

In fact, I believe we could have done better. For some reasons, we didn’t. But the memory we share, I hope, is good and useful in some way.

其实,我想

我们应该能做得更好一些

可能是由于很多的原因

我们一起经历的记忆

希望它能是好的。有点用的。

Li Ping Cun Xiao Xue Xiao Wo Xiang Jian Zao Yi Ge Fang Zi 16 - 里坪村小学校,我想建造一个房子......


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